As in most areas of the biosphere, those of Côte d’Ivoire are likely to suffer the nefarious effects of global warming, in particular through the phenomenon of climate change in the agricultural sector.
In fact, traditional rainfed rice farmers in Gagnoa (Côte d’Ivoire) are very affected by the effects of climate change due to several factors including precarious socio-economic conditions. The data analysis (temperatures and precipitation between 1961 and 2014) shows an increase in maximum and minimum temperatures (annual averages) of 1.5 ° C and 0.5 ° C respectively and a decreasing trend in precipitation ( by nearly 20% since 1965) with increasingly dry stretches and a shortening of the rainy season. Four climatic risks were identified and made it possible to assess the impacts on rice cultivation, water, vegetation and soil. The comparison of the impacts of climatic phenomena with the adaptation capacities of rice farmers linked to their livelihoods made it possible to assess their vulnerability, which remains high (TA BI ZAWA, 2017).
In order to counter the effects of global warming, the country set up in 2012, under the aegis of the ministry in charge of sustainable development, the national climate change program (PNCC), with the mission of proposing adaptation measures in the face of climate change and work to mitigate their effects in Côte d’Ivoire. Three strategic axes have been identified: (1) Promote the integration of climate change into sectoral policies and strategies, in development planning and strengthen the institutional and legal framework; (2) Improve and popularize national knowledge on climate change and strengthen the capacities of actors; (3) Promote measures to mitigate the effects of climate change in all sectors.
Despite the relevance of this program, the highly strategic nature of agricultural activity obliges decision-makers to do well, because in reality, today in Côte d’Ivoire, local actors in civil society and the business world seem relatively little engaged. The lack or little public debate on climate change issues and the lack of public interest in this topic reflect the commonly held belief that the effects of climate change will manifest in the future. It is nonetheless true that strategies to adapt or mitigate climate change require coordinated actions and the support of all stakeholders (World Bank, 2018).
Particular attention should therefore be paid to climate-smart agriculture techniques (CSA) in order to enable actors in the agricultural sector to cope with this extreme phenomenon. The country’s food security depends on it.
According to FAO, CSA is an approach that helps people managing agricultural systems cope with climate change effectively. This approach has three objectives, namely (1) sustainable increase in productivity and income, (2) adaptation to climate change and (3) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, where applicable. possible. The AIC approach also aims to minimize the counterparts (negative correlations) and promote synergies by taking these objectives into account to inform decisions from the local to the global level. This approach involves different elements in a local context and covers actions both on and beyond farms, and integrates technologies, policies, institutions and investments.
Thus, in addition to the national climate change program, concrete action such as capacity building for actors involved in the various sectors should be an absolute priority, given the reality of the climate change phenomenon in Côte d’Ivoire.
Dr Christophe GBOSSOU